Bank & Bond papers
Descriptive of a wide range of white and tinted uncoated printings and writings, usually wood free furnish – higher grades with rag or cotton content. Banks are grammages less than 60 g/m2. Widespread usage – letterhead, stationery, office and business, copy work etc.
A paper substrate in heavier grammages. The demarcation line between paper and board varies but generally in the UK it is accepted as being 160 g/m2 or 170 g/m2.
Carbonless Paper (NCR)
Self-copy or no carbon required paper comprises two sheets of paper, the underside of the top sheet being coated with a mixture containing colourless dye in minute gelatine capsules. The underneath sheet is coated with a mixture containing a special reactive clay which changes to black when penetrated by the colourless dye. Pressure applied to the top sheet causes the gelatine capsules to break and the black dye appears on the underneath sheet.
Paper (or board) coated on one or both sides with a mixture of china clay, latex and other loadings to fill up surface pits and improve the printing surface. There are a variety of coating methods, the most common on-machine coating method being roll coating. Off-machine processes include blade coating, air-knife coating, the traditional brush coating, or combinations of these types. A very high quality form of off machine coating is cast coating.
A grade widely used for computer printing. The paper is in reel form printed and perforated. May be in duplicate and/or Manifold. A particular use is for invoices, delivery notes, statements and similar documents.
A process whereby a relief image is formed on the paper or board surface by placing it under pressure between male and female un-inked dies. Usually done as a separate operation after printing, but is also done on plain paper, and the embossed image can be a printed or unprinted area (in the latter case it is known as ‘blind embossing). As the paper is distorted in the raised area, it must be sufficiently strong to prevent rupturing.
Forest Stewardship Council is an international organisation promoting responsible forest management. FSC has developed principles for forest management which may be used for certifying the management of forest holdings, and a system of tracing, verifying and labelling timber and wood products which originate from FSC-certified forests (Chain ofCustody). FSC papers contain fibre certified by the Forest Stewardship Council. The FSC is a non-profit organisation committed to the promotion of environmentally, socially and economically responsible forest management.
The weight of paper or board expressed in grams per square metre (g/m2) as determined under standard test conditions.
A board made entirely from waste paper. It may be lined or unlined and is use for a variety of packaging purposes.
A large variety of various types of plain or coloured body papers which have been gummed or to which a self-adhesive material has been applied, and subsequently cut into a vast number of shapes and sizes depending on end use and surface application.
Papers with a ribbed appearance produced by a mould or dandy roll which has wires parallel to each other and not woven. The closely spaced lines parallel to the paper’s machine direction are laid lines, and the widely spaced ones in the opposite direction are chain lines (see also‘Wove’).
Papers and boards used for making tags, high strength cartons, correspondence folders and many other articles where strength is at a premium. Furnish usually contains hemp rope pulp, and the product is usually machine glazed.
Special effect papers used largely as end papers in book binding; also in paper box making and other purposes, such as designer work.
A coated paper with a dull, smooth finish
Post Consumer Waste
Wood free printed waste that has been used and discarded by the end user, typically homes and offices.
Made from pulp as a homogenous sheet on a cylinder machine.
Pulp obtained from softwoods (long fibre) such as from coniferous trees, which imparts the strength properties to the paper.
Special furnish Grades
This is a category of papers and boards which contain very high grade pulps, a percentage of which will be rag, cotton or other non-wood pulps. The product is also likely to contain a proportion of chemical pulp (wood free) often associated with quality letterheads, textured and some embossed qualities.
Speciality Paper & Board
This is a paper trade definition applied to such grades as off-machine coated, laminated, impregnated etc., as distinguished from printings and writings etc., and other grades which do not require further processing. Speciality papers and boards are often the raw materials for use by other industries. The electrical and instrumental industries are examples.
A term loosely applied to paper making material in all its stages, but usually referring to the wet pulp before it is fed on to the paper making machine.
A watermark is a design which is impressed into the paper when it is formed on the wire of the paper making machine. The design is carried by the dandy roll and is slightly proud of its surface. The slight pressure which is applied reduces the thickness of the paper, and when dry shows through, because it is less opaque.
Paper produced with a plain wove pattern dandy roll.
Calculating Weight of Paper
To find weight in kilos per 1000 sheets given g/m2 and size in millimetres g/m2 x length x breadth ÷ 1,000,000.
Non-impact printing process where the image is formed by a continuous stream of ink droplets of the same size and frequency.The position of the dot on the substrate is determined by an electrostatic charge. The unwanted droplets are diverted to a waste tray.
Describes the process where digital information from computer is used to generate pulses of light to form images on a light sensitive drum. Thereafter the actual non-impact printing process is xerographic.
Printing from a planographic metal plate, the printing and on-printing areas being on the same plane, with the non-printing areas only accepting water, and the printing areas only accepting a greasy ink. When the inked image is directly transferred to the paper it is known as “direct lithography”, but when, as in most cases, the ink is first transferred to a rubber offset blanket and then to the paper,permitting good quality printing on the less smooth papers, it is termed “offset lithography”.
Non Impact Printing
A term used to describe modern printing processes such as Laser and Inkjet printing. These processes are described as nonimpact as there is no direct physical contact between the printing mechanism and the paper.
The printing image is produced through a mesh made by a cut or photographic stencil, the ink being forced through the mesh by a squeegee. The ink film thickness of the printed image is significantly greater than that produced by other printing processes. Can print on a wide range of different materials.
A method of imitating the more expensive die stamping, as used for stationery. The printing is as normal for letterpress or lithography, but the wet printed image is dusted with resin and immediately fused by heat, producing a similar relief image to die stamping but without the embossing on the reverse side of the sheet.
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